Picture of first sit-in August 13, 1960 and closed lunch counter. “It was never about a hot dog and a Coke®!” More »

Civil Rights Marker in downtown Jacksonville-Hemming Park/Plaza. More »

With Stetson Kennedy and Wayne Greenhaw. More »

Members of the 1960 Jacksonville Youth Council NAACP TODAY---with Marjorie Meeks Brown, Dr. Arnett E. Girardeau, Iona Godfrey King, Rometa Graham Porter, Isaac Carnes, Alton Yates. More »

With NAACP National Executive Secretary Roy Wilkins in 1960 when he spoke in Jacksonville at one of the NAACP Mass Meetings. More »

Receiving Bronze Medal as a Florida Book Awards Winner--with Wayne Wiegand. More »

With Dr. Michael Eric Dyson-Speaker at the 2009 Jacksonville Branch NAACP Freedom Fund Dinner. More »

Speaker-City of Jacksonville Dr. Martin Luther King Breakfast More »

With Dr. Charles Ogletree, the Harvard Law School Jesse Climenko Professor of Law, and Founding and Executive Director of the Charles Hamilton Houston Institute for Race and Justice...and the Speaker at the 2008 Jacksonville Branch NAACP Freedom Fund Dinner. Dr. Ogletree taught both Michelle Obama and President Obama at Harvard Law School. More »

Ruby Hurley and Ella Baker, two of 12 Civil Rights Icons immortalized in the 2009 USPS Stamp Issue-Civil Rights Pioneers. More »

Mrs. Ruby Hurley, Southeastern Regional Director NAACP and our 1960 NAACP Youth Council Surrogate Mother. More »

With Civil Rights Icon and Congressman John Lewis More »

50th Anniversary Commemoration of the 1960 Sit-ins and Ax Handle Saturday with members of the 1960 Jacksonville Youth Council NAACP. From left...Issac Carnes, Marjorie Meeks Brown, Mary Chisholm Underwood, Iona Godfrey King, and Ann Albertie Hurst (yep my wife). In the rear of the Pulpit area at Bethel Baptist Institutional Church...from left...Ms. Adora Nweze, President of the Florida State Conference of Branches NAACP; Rev. Dr. Randolph Bracy; Isaiah Rumlin, President of the Jacksonville Branch; and Bethel Senior Co-Pastor, Bishop Rudolph McKissick Sr. More »

Jacksonville Branch NAACP 2012 Freedom Fund Dinner More »

With Dr. Jelani Cobb at the 98th ASALH Annual Convention in Jacksonville October 2-6, 2013. More »

Dr. Johnnetta Cole, Speaker at the 2013 ASALH National Convention Banquet in Jacksonville, Florida. More »

Dr. Robert Hayling, Me, and Charlie Cobb at the 2014 Florida Heritage Book Festival for our presentation on the Civil Rights/Freedom Summer Movement. More »


What has Brack Obama Done That Gets So Many People Angry?


He (President Barack Obama) had the un-mitigated gall to be a Black man who beat two Republican candidates. Furthermore, he had the bad sense to be articulate, a faithful husband and good father. Moreover, he unpatriotically was able to stop our soldiers from being killed in the Middle East while saving us 30 – 50 billion dollars a month. It was bad form for him to kill Osama bin Laden seeing  as how the previous Administration was unable to do it. In addition, he made the mistake of saving the economy from falling into depression. But worst of all, he took Jesus at his word and treated all people, including gays, women, Latins, Blacks and whites the same as he would have wanted to be treated. It was clearly a major transgression for him to try to fix the broken health system in America. In addition, he foolishly gained the respect of our Allies, something the previous administration worked assiduously to destroy. Finally, he made the unforgivable error of trying to protect the environment and save the planet from climate change, something we absolutely CANNOT have. The Republicans are correct — this madman MUST be stopped.

The Struggle Continues. RLHSR.



Image result for rosa parks IMAGES
ROSA PARKS DID NOT get on the Municipal Bus in Montgomery and then SPONTANEOUSLY decided she would sit down and then refuse to give her seat to someone White. It was planned for her to sit in the heretofore White section of the bus. Montgomery and Alabama had a municipal law which stated "Whites seat from front. Negroes seat from rear." The National NAACP needed to get the law in court and Edgar Daniel Nixon, President of the Montgomery Branch NAACP selected Rosa Parks, Secretary of the Montgomery Branch NAACP as the test litigant. Mrs. Parks was arrested as they knew she would be.

Upon Mrs. Parks arrest, the NAACP immediately filed suit against the segregated bus ordinance in federal court. The Montgomery Bus Boycott began as a consequence and as the case against segregation wound its way through the federal court system. During those days it was a two-pronged Civil rights attack. Sue and demonstrate. The boycott lasted from December 1, 1955 until December 20, 1956—381 Days— when the United States Supreme Court ruled the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses unconstitutional.

The Struggle Continues. RLHSR.

Your Family History has nothing to do with Your Death.

What does family history have to do with Murder?

The Media is a RACIST component of American Society, but what would you expect? Watch your local news ans see what Black headline stories lead their news casts. Watch how often they show mug shots of Black victims and a "clean" version of the shooting White police. Watch when the perpetrators are White, they almost always show them in a favorable light with nice college/high school pictures. Mostly, almost never a mug shot.Watch when the perpetrators are Black, almost always a mug shot. Watch how they never question the "official" version of a police shooting when the dead victim is Black and cannot answer for himself/herself. Watch how negative family history of the victim becomes a part of the Media response as if to absolve a policeman+ of murder. Watch how some Blacks—not all—follow the scripted "party line" and especially at the local news level.The Media alternates between being THE PR arm of the Republi-cant Party …The PR arm of Police Departments…and regurgitating talking points of some of the most vile Racists in America. NO COURAGE. Question…Who watches and monitors the media for truth? Answer…NO ONE.

The Struggle Continues. RLHSR.


SIXTY YEARS AGO, ROSA PARKS refused to give up her seat on a bus in Montgomery, Ala. Her courageous act is now American legend. She is a staple of elementary school curricula and was the second-most popular historical figure named by American students in a survey. There, we see a lifelong activist who had been challenging white supremacy for decades before she became the famous catalyst for the Montgomery bus boycott. We see a woman who, from her youth, didn’t hesitate to indict the system of oppression around her. As she once wrote, “I talked and talked of everything I know about the white man’s inhuman treatment of the negro.”
Rosa Parks was a seasoned freedom fighter who had grown up in a family that supported Marcus Garvey and who married an activist for the Scottsboro boys. She joined the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP in 1943, becoming branch secretary. She spent the next decade pushing for voter registration, seeking justice for black victims of white brutality and sexual violence, supporting wrongfully accused black men, and pressing for desegregation of schools and public spaces. Committed to both the power of organized nonviolent direct action and the moral right of self defense, she called Malcolm X her personal hero.
EXCERPT FROM CHAPTER 3 —A. PHILIP RANDOLPH—UNLESS WE TELL IT…IT NEVER GETS TOLD! Rodney L. Hurst, Sr. Copyrighted material. Reprinted by permission.
“A. Philip Randolph played a key role in the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955–1956. Contrary to popular belief—and to what is written in some historical accounts—the bus boycott was well-planned, and did not begin spontaneously simply because Rosa Parks was so tired that she would not move from her seat so that a white man could sit down. Edgar Daniel Nixon, president of both the Montgomery, Alabama, chapter of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and the Montgomery branch of the NAACP, was one of the key leaders of the boycott. He knew that the effort would require extensive support, and selected Rosa Parks, secretary of the Montgomery NAACP, to be at the center of the legal “test case” because of her dignified demeanor and temperament. As shown in Jeanne Theoharis’s book The Rebellious Life of Mrs. Rosa Parks, Rosa Parks was much more than merely a quiet seamstress who was so tired that she just had to sit down. Theoharis’s absorbing portrayal provides a deeper understanding of the life of this civil rights icon and her lifetime of activism.
Nixon asked Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., to lead the boycott. Because of the projected expenses for this large undertaking, he also contacted A. Philip Randolph for financial assistance with the effort. Randolph delivered more than $50,000—the amount varies with some accounts—to help offset the costs related to the boycott, which lasted 381 days. According to Nixon, “without A. Philip Randolph, there would not have been a successful Montgomery Bus Boycott and no legacy of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.” Many consider Randolph to have been the true “Father of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States.”
The Struggle Continues. RLHSR.


The Struggle Continues.  RLHSR.

Are You Serious?

RUNNING CONVERSATION WITH ONE OF MY OBVIOUSLY WHITE FACEBOOK “Friends.” I posted a picture with a caption…”Black People Have Been Stereotyped as Lazy Ever Since They Stopped Working For Free.”
This is the ensuing conversation. I have replaced his name AND ALL REFERENCES with FACEBOOK FRIEND.

FACEBOOK FRIEND…Those with whom I worked shoulder to shoulder sweat brow to sweat brow in the farm fields where we grew up as neighbors were paid the same thing as white workers, all ate together from food my Step-mother prepared, drank water from the same water barrel, drank the same RC Colas and ate the same moon pies my Dad bought for all of us to have a mid morning and mid afternoon snack. What you are showing does not resemble anything I ever saw or experienced as one who hand picked cotton, plowed mules, hoed peanuts, and worked the fields together.

Rodney Lawrence Hurst Sr …This is a picture of slavery FACEBOOK FRIEND. Did you not read the caption? However by NO stretch of the imagination were Blacks EVER paid the same pay for equal work as Whites. It Just Did Not Happen.

FACEBOOK FRIEND …You are categorically incorrect. It simply illustrates that you speak about things you do not know about and do it with a racist intent. You were not present, as I was, when my Dad and Farmers throughout Northwest Florida paid black workers the same thing all other workers were paid. I doubt seriously that you ever worked in a field with anyone. Nobody coerced anyone to work or not to work where and when I grew up. I am still involved with the farming operations of my Brother. Being fully mechanized and doing our own work, there are no other workers employed nowadays.

Rodney Lawrence Hurst Sr… You would love to get away with saying I do not know of what I speak. That is always the first response of core racist attitudes when Blacks question the virile racism that has existed in this country for 300 hundred years. I like you calling me a racist. It shows me how uninformed you are AND it shows me that you like many other Whites in this country do not even understand the definition of Racism, and based on our previous conversation you have no clue what White Privilege is either. Maybe it is time I call you a racist FACEBOOK FRIEND……..because you are the one —White America—who instituted this American Institution of Racism. And it is you who cannot see the forest for the trees. You probably think Whites are being unfairly discriminated against and yet you probably never even acknowledged Racism existed. You remind me of the usual Whites who always talk about Blacks pulling themselves up by their boot straps knowing full well they never had boots. You do not know me well enough to know where I have worked. You do not know me well enough to know what I have experienced. Yet suffice it to say I have seen Whites like you everyday. Now let me also deal with the intent of the image/picture…Whites call Blacks shiftless and lazy and no good, yet when we were working as enslaved persons in a Racist Southern Free Labor Economy we represented 1/3 of the national wealth of this country. We were fine then and YOU still did not pay us. You said you paid Blacks equal pay for equal work…Well in the history of White America…YOU are the First.
The Struggle Continues. RLHSR.

Remembering America’s Home Grown Domestic Terrorists

*the Dylan Roofs ( who killed the 9 AME Church members in Charleston South Carolina…
*the Byron De Le Beckwiths (who assassinated Medgar Evers)…
*the Shawn Berrys, Lawrence Russell Brewers, and John Kings (who dragged James Byrd for three miles behind their pick-up truck in Jasper Texas along an asphalt road)…
*the Cecil Prices (Deputy Sheriff in Philadelphia Mississippi who led the group responsible for the murder of James Earl Chaney from Meridian, Mississippi, and Andrew Goodman and Michael "Mickey" Schwerner from New York City, who were abducted, shot at close range and killed by members of the local White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, the Neshoba County Sheriff's Office, and the Philadelphia Police Department of that city in Mississippi)…
*the Roy Bryants and the J. W. Milams (who murdered Emmett Till)…
*the James Earl Rays (who assassinated Dr. Martin Luther King)…
*the Robert Chambliss' (charged with murder and with buying 122 sticks of dynamite which he used to bomb the 16th Avenue Church in Birmingham Alabama killing Denise McNair, Cynthia Wesley, Carole Robertson, and Addie Mae Collins, aged 11 to 14)…
*the faceless murderers of Harry T. Moore and his wife Harriet whose home was bombed on Christmas night in 1951 because of their civil rights activities…
*The murderers of Vernon Dahmer, President of the Harrisburg Mississippi NAACP and civil rights activist (who eventually died from burns when three carloads of Klansmen pushing into their house, shooting and setting fire to a dozen one-gallon containers of gasoline. His wife, youngest children, and elderly aunt all escaped, although his daughter was severely burned. Vernon Dahmer succumbed to his injuries just 12 hours later.)
*THESE ARE BUT A FEW of the HOMEGROWN DOMESTIC TERRORISTS Blacks have had to deal with in this SELF-ANOINTED Christian America.

The Struggle Continues. RLHSR.

He is the President. You Have Had 7 Years To Get Over It!

President Obama Rips and Humiliates Trump And Carson In Front Of The Entire World

FOX Minions recommend President Obama take advice from a TV Show.

WHITE FOLKS ARE VERY GOOD AT SECOND GUESSING BLACKS WHEN BLACKS ARE IN CHARGE. However, what they are really admitting though is they cannot stand it that a Black male is the President of These United States. I think we have heard enough from Republicants and FOX and other wayward travelers in the Media to know and understand these comments have nothing to do with partisan politics or philosophical differences.

Ted Cruz and Rand Paul have never served in the military. Neither have Marco Rubio, Jeb Bush, Scott Walker, Chris Christie, Mike Huckabee, Rick Santorum or Bobby Jindal. Of course we all know the Uncle Ben story. It is no crime to not have served in the military. It is a crime when you allow your resolute ignorance of the military and military affairs tempered with Diplomacy…and your hatred for the President of the United States AND THE Commander-In-Chief of ALL United States Military …to overload your ignorant behind thereby impacting the entire world. Itchy Ignorant Trigger Happy A$$holes have no place in the Oval Office. We saw what happened when we had ONE in the White House just a few short years ago.

These comments have everything to do with White Privilege and White Folks refusing to admit and acknowledge the Black President knows what the hell he is doing. And they do not know whether to "sh*t or go blind" (colloquial expression in the Black community). They are also admitting they did not have have enough political moxey to run and be elected as President; so correspondingly they WILL NEVER admit President Obama has the requisite political intellect to serve AND serve WELL as President. They really do not have to. The proof is in the results.

The Struggle Continues. RLHSR.

Black Children Matter Too!

I WILL NEVER DEFEND MURDER, FAR FROM IT. Murder by Police is certainly indefensible and unfathomable. The murder of a child is even worse. Everyone is up in arms over the killing a a 6 year old White child. Yet we have seen murder by police with regularity. But the victims are almost always Black…and the police are almost always White. HOWEVER, I have yet to see this swift determination that the police were guilty and arrested and charged with second degree murder when the victim was a Black child and the police was White. Believe me, Police have killed a number of Black children ACCIDENTALLY according to the police. And in every instance when police made a "mistake", there were "police safety circumstances" and the killing was ruled "justified." WHITE POLICE ARE NEVER ARRESTED AND CHARGED AS QUICKLY as in this "case." You might as well not have a trial for these two Black policemen. They are already guilty no matter what criminal acts the dead youngster's father committed to have the police respond.
News accounts…The incident began last Tuesday night when 25-year-old Chris Few reportedly led four city marshals on a chase through Marksville with his son Jeremy sat in the passenger’s seat.Few is speculated to have attempted to ram into patrol vehicles once he was cornered in at a dead-end, though state police have not confirmed this.
No matter the circumstances the Louisiana State Police Col. Mike Edmonson characterized the shooting as " the most disturbing thing I’ve seen." Really Colonel? What a quick response. No investigation. Just Guilty. No administrative leave with pay. No "due process" and no "jumping to conclusions" as is the usual response when the police shooter is White.
There have been no comments about the father ramming the police cruiser or the father's background which is the usual case when the officers are White and the victim is Black. And the police and the press go to strict PR mode to sully the reputation of the Black victim and the Black victim's family. That has happened in EVERY CASE when the dead victim is Black. Of course, the response/reaction is always "Race has nothing to do with it". Strange how the script in this case gets flipped.

Black police…White Victim…no extenuating circumstances…GUILTY PERIOD!!!
White police…Black Victim…extenuating circumstances…JUSTIFIED SHOOTING!!!
Anyone can write this script.
The Struggle Continues. RLHSR.

Stoney The Road We Trod…

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CHANGE DOES NOT ALWAYS HAPPEN BECAUSE IT IS THE RIGHT THING TO DO. THROUGHOUT THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT—you know that movement that many Black and White Millennials say is no long relevant—economic power was always the key. Racism did not take its lumps until it became expensive and all resulting from man’s racist inhumanity to man.
Even though it is noteworthy that Tim Wolfe, the President of the University of Missouri resigned, he resigned never dealing with the continuing core racist attitudes of inhumanity which got into trouble. It was not until the Blacks on the football team threatened not to play and the university was faced with more than a million dollars in “racist costs” did the president and other associated with the University of Missouri got the message. Wolfe’s decision was decried by some who were shocked that a system president could be forced out by protesters focused on a single issue. Of course they miss the point. It is not a single issue.
Racism is never a single issue and once again racism ALWAYS affects our very lives. Those who feel it is “better” and far more “convenient” to send their Black sons and daughters to a TWI—Traditional White Institution—should understand that now. When we think it is more convenient to send our children to get an education at a school because they will get on TV or there is “prestige” attached to the institution because it is White, we need to get back to OUR books and really study or better yet just look in the mirror.
President Wolfe said, “Change comes from listening, learning, caring and conversation. We have to respect each other.” I beg to differ. Change does not come from “listening, learning, caring and conversation”. Change comes from the uncomfortability of being made to face an issue(s) you refuse to face. Change comes from the uncomfortability of admitting racism and then doing something about that racism. Change is an action word and talking will not solve the problem. Many movements fighting racism started with young people. And each movement was criticized. The Black community was not monolithic. Some Blacks did not want young Blacks upsetting their carefully crafted "Colored Fiefdom." The sit-ins in 1960 started when four Black college freshmen from historically Black North Carolina A&T College in Greensboro, North Carolina challenged racism by sitting in White lunch counters. The 1960 Jacksonville sit-ins which led to Ax Handle Saturday started with Black high school students from the four segregated Black high schools in Jacksonville, Fl sitting in at White Lunch Counters. The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) was founded by Black College students at historically Black Shaw College in Raleigh, North Carolina in 1960 to fight racism. Young people upset the very convenient “apple cart” for many Blacks and Whites. Whites and Blacks now, like they did then, will criticize the Black students at the University of Missouri for making it too “uncomfortable.” And those criticizing will never understand. 
When a person is daily insulted because of the color of his/her skin, the INSULTER has a problem. You know nothing about but that I have a Black skin and that is your prerequisite for hating me. Note to INSULTERS…if you do not want the tag of RACIST…then do something about it. Changing racism is something only you can do. If you do not want to do anything about the American Institution you created, then just prepare yourself for the expensiveness of your Racism. We will fight you, and the fight will get more expensive with each battle.
The Struggle Continues. RLHSR.