Picture of first sit-in August 13, 1960 and closed lunch counter. “It was never about a hot dog and a Coke®!” More »
Members of the 1960 Jacksonville Youth Council NAACP TODAY---with Marjorie Meeks Brown, Dr. Arnett E. Girardeau, Iona Godfrey King, Rometa Graham Porter, Isaac Carnes, Alton Yates. More »
With NAACP National Executive Secretary Roy Wilkins in 1960 when he spoke in Jacksonville at one of the NAACP Mass Meetings. More »
With Dr. Michael Eric Dyson-Speaker at the 2009 Jacksonville Branch NAACP Freedom Fund Dinner. More »
With Dr. Charles Ogletree, the Harvard Law School Jesse Climenko Professor of Law, and Founding and Executive Director of the Charles Hamilton Houston Institute for Race and Justice...and the Speaker at the 2008 Jacksonville Branch NAACP Freedom Fund Dinner. Dr. Ogletree taught both Michelle Obama and President Obama at Harvard Law School. More »
Ruby Hurley and Ella Baker, two of 12 Civil Rights Icons immortalized in the 2009 USPS Stamp Issue-Civil Rights Pioneers. More »
Mrs. Ruby Hurley, Southeastern Regional Director NAACP and our 1960 NAACP Youth Council Surrogate Mother. More »
50th Anniversary Commemoration of the 1960 Sit-ins and Ax Handle Saturday with members of the 1960 Jacksonville Youth Council NAACP. From left...Issac Carnes, Marjorie Meeks Brown, Mary Chisholm Underwood, Iona Godfrey King, and Ann Albertie Hurst (yep my wife). In the rear of the Pulpit area at Bethel Baptist Institutional Church...from left...Ms. Adora Nweze, President of the Florida State Conference of Branches NAACP; Rev. Dr. Randolph Bracy; Isaiah Rumlin, President of the Jacksonville Branch; and Bethel Senior Co-Pastor, Bishop Rudolph McKissick Sr. More »
Dr. Johnnetta Cole, Speaker at the 2013 ASALH National Convention Banquet in Jacksonville, Florida. More »
Dr. Robert Hayling, Me, and Charlie Cobb at the 2014 Florida Heritage Book Festival for our presentation on the Civil Rights/Freedom Summer Movement. More »
DUKE IS AS RACIST AS ANY TWI, Traditional White Institution. So save the indignant attitude that it happened at Duke if you attended Duke…or any other TWI. We have seen it happen over and over and over again at PWI—Predominantly White Institutions— because racism exists there also and wherever the American Institution of Racism exists, you have episodes of racial hatred. Duke's Vice President of Student Affairs Larry Moneta said in 2013 that racism isn't an "overt violation" of Duke University's code of student conduct; it's just "boorish and foolish". Boorish and Foolish eh? He is still Duke's Vice President for Student Affairs.
And please do not tell me how millennials—both Black and White—will make a difference. Many millennials do not know how to address and deal with racism. They still contend we are in a Post-Racial Society. And please…stop quoting Dr. King's statement… "I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character" …as a wedge against doing what is right for centuries to end racism and discrimination. Dr. King knew we could never get to the content of character because White America would never get beyond the color of Black skin. Affirmative action was a start and then White America created Reverse Discrimination. What a real pathetic joke!
So when these instances occur at so-called prestigious White Institutions of Higher Education, and even the non-prestigious White Institutions of Higher Education, Blacks are not surprised. We rather expect them. After all Racism is as American as Apple Pie draped in the American Flag.
The Struggle Continues. RLHSR.
Mr. Mayor…Let me direct these comments to you.
When you ran for mayor in 2011, according to some, you indicated you would not have a political administration and you would not deal in partisan politics since you had both Republicant and Democrat support.? Never did understand that but so be it because after all, you did run as a Democrat. In 2012, you were asked by a reporter if you would support and campaign for President, since you were inexplicably absent when President Obama came to town to campaign for re-election. You indicated you would not, and repeated again the nonsense about not dealing in partisan politics. I could not understand your lack of motivation or your logic since he was a Democrat and you were a Democrat and Democrats went to the polls in good numbers to support you against your Republicant opposition. And true to your word, not only were you absent when President Obama came to town but you did not even extend political courtesies to Mrs. Obama when she came to town to campaign for her husband, The President of the United States. In fact she came to town twice and you were a no-show both times. And let me remind you she IS the First Lady of the United States. I considered it an insult. And like I have said to you Mr. Mayor, Blacks might like you, but they definitely LOVE President Obama.
There was a rumor that said in exchange for supporting you, the Republicant Big Boys got you to commit to not support President Obama. As I said that was a nasty rumor and let's leave it at that. So you are elected Mayor of Jacksonville as a Democrat …You do not campaign for President Obama also a Democrat…but you went to the inauguration of Republicant Governor Rick Scott and in a TV interview YOU sing his praises as if he was the second coming. So what did you gain in return? Nothing absolutely Nothing. And to add the proverbial insult to injury, YOUR Governor Scott endorsed your opponent as you are running for re-election. The Governor apparently thinks you are not worth a blankety- blank or he is really playing partisan politics by endorsing a Republicant over a Democrat. The kind you said YOU could not play when you justified NOT CAMPAIGNING FOR PRESIDENT OBAMA RUNNING FOR RE-ELECTION AGAINST MITT ROMNEY..
I am certainly not a fan of Republicants nor what they stand for. But if you are re-elected, it will happen in spite of yourself. You have literally and figuratively played a terrible hand of political cards, and you have not endeared yourself to the community who had so much hope for your administration. I cannot abide political stupidity or political naivete, but I have to admit Mr. Mayor, in this instance, you take the political cake. Good Luck. You'll need it.
The Struggle Continues. RLHSR.
SOME OF YOU WHITE FOLKS WILL LEARN ABOUT TRYING TO LECTURE ME ON RACISM. The following is an exchange with me and one of my Facebook "friends". I will black out his name for the time being. I posted an article about Social Conservatives seeking to find the right candidate to unite behind and the article had a picture of Ted Cruz.
I then said on the comments above the article:
I posted with the article the following: "The Hot Mess of Right Wingnut White Anglo Saxon Protestant Christian Evangelical Racist Republicants trying to ensure another Black Man or a Woman will not darken…literally and figuratively…the Oval Office in the White House and its living quarters."
My "Facebook Friend" responded:
Are you insinuating that Cruz is a racist because he is a "Protestant Evangelical Christian Republican"? I'm guessing not, but the insinuation is there. You're a historian, and you know that Martin Luther King, Jr's father was all that, but not a racist. And so is his niece. And it was a Republican Pres that established MLK Day as a National Holiday. And should we list the 1050's Democratic leaders (some members of the KKK) who opposed Civil Rights and Voting Rights legislation? And what about the Repubican Pres that pushed for equality in both the military and housing? I happened to be a Protestant Evangelical Christian Republican (and white), who, by the way, voted for more D's than R's in this recent election. IT appears to me that NEITHER party is a bastion of morality and justice, and both need to be called out on this problem.
This is my reply:
I guess you are giving me the typical White man's lecture on what Blacks should be grateful for. White privilege I presume. Apparently you do not know me that well. If you did, you would know I do not insinuate anything. Rafael "Ted" Cruz is a racist because he embraces racist philosophy and the ideology of a Republican political party of racists. Many Blacks of days gone by were Republicans ONLY because it was the party of Lincoln. That was then. Many of those same Blacks would not claim any membership in this remnant of Lincoln's Party which wallows in core racist attitudes and supports any effort designed to discriminate against Blacks.
Your President Ronald Reagan did not establish Martin Luther King's birthday as a National Holiday. He simply signed the bill. Many of you Republican…I guess you are a Republican…bow at Reagan's throne as if he was some extraordinary president. If fact, he was a horrible president who spent more day vacationing than any other president in recent memory. Reagan reluctantly signed the bill for the Martin Luther King Holiday not because he wanted to but because he basically had to. You need to go back to the historical drawing board. No Republican President "pushed for equality in both the military and housing." I have no idea where you got that tidbit from unless like many Whites you make up history as you go along …OR…conveniently forget other portions of history that is too embarrassing for you to admit. BTW.. This is the same Ronald Reagan who publicly said he would have voted against the Civil Rights Bill and the Voting Rights Bill. You remind me so much of Whites who protesteth racism too much. It makes no difference to me how many D's and R's you voted for. That is like telling me some of my best friends are Black. Neither impresses me at all. Let me make this clear…Rafael "Ted" Cruz is a foreign born racist U. S. Senator from Texas and the Republican Party is a haven for Racists.
The Struggle Continues. RLHSR.
Roots of frat boy racism: America’s oldest colleges profited from slavery, taught racial inferiority
This is The Racist History of America which is never taught in middle schools…high schools…or in colleges/universities. The Racist History of America which makes many Blacks and Whites uncomfortable. The Racist History of America which upsets our nice and tidy Integrated Apple Cart. Yet the Racist which happened and the Racist History which we MUST discuss. When we know better, we do better.
"Demands to rename Tillman Hall at Clemson University, the circulation of a video showing a racist chant at the University of Oklahoma and the discovery of a fraternity pledge book discussing lynching at North Carolina State University demonstrate how persistent racial issues are on college campuses.
Benjamin Tillman was a post-Civil War politician, racial demagogue and participant in racial violence, who was critical to Clemson University’s founding in the late-nineteenth century.
Tillman was not the only one. The University of North Carolina trustees are considering a request this week to rename Saunders Hall. The building was named in 1922 for William Saunders, a leader of the North Carolina Ku Klux Klan.
Buildings named after participants in racial violence and songs celebrating the segregation as well as the lynching of black people are not merely offensive. They recall the violence used to maintain all-white institutions for much of this country’s history.
In fact, colleges and universities historically have supported hierarchies of race and other forms of difference from their founding in the colonial era through the civil rights struggles of the late-20th century.
As a co-founder and director of the Transforming Community Project, I used the history of race at Emory University to help members of the university community understand the meaning of equity for the institution today.
In 2011, I co-organized, “Slavery and the University: Histories and Legacies,” the first conference on the history of slavery and racial discrimination at institutions of higher education. Scholars and administrators from across the United States shared the troubled past of slavery and segregation of a majority of colleges and universities.
American universities were connected to slave trade
Today many see the goals of higher education institutions as providing access to all seeking upward economic, political and social mobility, regardless of race, class, gender and religion. But it was not always so.
Colleges and universities built curricula and performed research that supported the enslavement of Africans.
Money from the African slave trade and slavery financed institutions of higher education.
Many college campuses used or owned enslaved blacks, who erected and maintained the buildings and grounds, and served the faculty, students and administrators. At many schools, students, faculty and administrators brought their slaves with them to campus.
One might imagine that this was true only in the South. But the most prestigious educational institutions in the North – Harvard, Princeton, Brown, and others – were intimately connected to the slave trade and slavery.
Most students, who came to these schools from all over the United States, were supporters of slavery, and some were wealthy slave owners themselves.
Scholars believed in racial inferiority
University scholars of the time argued that the racial inferiority of people of African descent justified their enslavement; and that enslavement would bring blacks closer to Christian salvation.
Faculty and students also argued for the centrality of slavery to the nation’s economic success. Coursework in history, religion and other subjects supported the moral and political correctness of slavery.
The influence of college graduates reached beyond North America into slave-holding societies in the Caribbean and South America. Graduates took up positions among the slave-holding elite as plantation owners and politicians. Others became ministers or educators who upheld slavery through preaching and teaching.
Those who spoke against slavery on college campuses were few, and faculty spoke out against slavery at the threat of losing their jobs. In the United States before the Civil War, only anti-slavery colleges such as Oberlin College in Ohio were consistent in their opposition to slavery and racism.
Following the Civil War, historically white colleges North and South diverged only slightly in their willingness to admit non-white students. These schools also limited or prevented the enrollment of other groups, such as non-Protestant Christians or Jews.
Quota systems were used by universities in the north.
In the south, legal segregation prevented black students from attending colleges and universities. In northern schools, quota systems limited the number of blacks who could attend.
In both North and South, schools limited the enrollment of non-Protestant Christians, such as Catholics; and Jews, among other groups. These practices reinforced racial and religious hierarchies until the late-twentieth century.
The threat or use of violence was central to maintaining racial and religious segregation in all parts of society.
At the University of Florida in Gainesville in 1924, Ku Klux Klan members (including the city’s mayor and police chief) kidnapped and castrated a Catholic priest serving the small group of Catholic students there. They believed that the priest was converting Protestant students to Catholicism.
When Tillman supported the founding of Clemson University in 1889, he had already established himself as in favor of upholding racial segregation by violence. There was no question that the university would be for whites only.
Court cases and funding threats forced desegregation.
State schools established for whites maintained racially exclusionary practices towards blacks until forced to integrate by Supreme Court rulings Sweatt v. Painter in 1950 and Brown v. Board of Education in 1954.
Pressure from national professional organizations who threatened to withhold accreditation, as well as from the federal government and foundations who threatened to withhold grant funding from segregated institutions, forced most private institutions to desegregate in the early 1960s.
However, it was not until the 1970s that segregation for non-whites and quotas for non-Christian students in universities were completely abolished.
Southern institutions fought desegregation through a series of law suits. And the first African Americans students to attend these schools suffered acute harassment.
During Sweatt’s first semester on campus, someone burned a cross at the law school and inscribed KKK (Ku Klux Klan) on the steps of the law building. Most faculty members and students at the law school did not support Sweatt. He ended up leaving after two years without a law degree.
In 1954, as part of its continuing resistance to desegregation, the University of Texas named a new dorm for William Stewart Simkins, one of the law school’s first professors.
Simkins, a native of the same South Carolina county as Benjamin Tillman, was also a founder of the Florida Ku Klux Klan. Both Simkins and Tillman boasted of using violence to enforce racial segregation.
Honoring Simkins in 1954 symbolically reinforced the school’s commitment to segregation. Similar actions occurred throughout the south and included the reclamation of the Confederate flag by southerners and lynching of civil rights activists as part of a “massive resistance” to desegregation.
Significant progress on campuses.
The events occurring on campuses today echo these troubled times, and reveal the continuing unease that some have with diverse campuses. But significant progress has been made in the 65 years since Heman Sweatt attempted his law degree at University of Texas.
The vast majority of higher education institutions recognize that serving a diverse campus community is of intrinsic value to the educational enterprise and to the nation at large.
As a result, many schools are struggling to align their campuses with these changes by renaming buildings and limiting racist behavior.
In 2010, the University of Texas renamed Simkins Hall to Creekside. At the University of Oklahoma, following the circulation of a video in which members of the local chapter of Sigma Alpha Epsilon (SAE), the only national fraternity founded in the South, sing of excluding from their fraternity, and hanging, “niggers,” the national fraternity leadership closed the chapter.
The Pi Kappa Phi chapter at North Carolina State has been suspended as university and national fraternity officials investigate the pledge book that contains references to lynching and rape.
The landscape of US higher education today would be completely unrecognizable to Benjamin Tillman and William Stewart Simkins.
This is a profound achievement."
The Struggle Continues. RLHSR..
Governor Rick Scott selected the following persons for 2015 induction in the Florida Civil Rights Hall of Fame:
*Governor Reubin O’Donovan Askew (1928-2014), formerly of Pensacola, was the 37th Governor of Florida.
*Sallye B. Mathis (1912-1982), formerly of Jacksonville, served for 28 years as a teacher in the Duval County Public School System, where she taught elementary school students and history at Matthew Gilbert High School.
*Edward Daniel Davis (1904-1989), formerly of Orlando, was an author, educator, and businessman.
I cannot possibly describe my feelings that …
1) MR. RUTLEDGE PEARSON, who was one of the 10 finalists along with other notables in the Civil Rights Movement including State NAACP Field Secretary Robert Saunders, WAS NOT selected;
2) A Republicant Governor determines who is selected in a Civil Rights Hall of Fame (Florida Statute 760.065).
These were purely safe political picks, not Civil Rights Movement picks. Mr. Pearson was THE stalwart in the Florida Civil Rights Movement until his untimely mysterious death (some say assassination) in 1967. His civil rights activities occurred while as a school teacher and while as an NAACP volunteer. He put his life on the line time after time. Duval School System Administrators …both Black and White…continually tried to intimidate him for his fighting the ever imposing overt segregation which strangled the City of Jacksonville. Mr. Pearson never held a political office, and he did not hide behind being a school teacher. He did what he felt was right. As the adviser to the Jacksonville Youth Council NAACP he always told us, "IF YOU ARE NOT A PART OF THE SOLUTION, YOU ARE A PART OF THE PROBLEM." He made sure we understood fighting racism was a part of the solution. But Unfortunately, "Let the works I do speak for me" does not make a damn bit of difference in the political arena.
There is no consolation for me in these selections. I make no apologies for my comments and my feelings. Selecting someone for induction in a Civil Rights Hall of Fame is by their merit, not by a campaign. You do not lobby for someone to be included. But this is a Civil Rights Hall of Fame, not a Political Hall of Fame.
Your work in the Civil Rights Movement should speak for itself. Apparently in the State of Florida with Governor Rick Scott making the selections, it does not.
You do not have to make-up the accomplishments of a real civil rights hero. Their actions speak for themselves. It is unfortunate there are those who feel lobbying the Governor politically for him to select someone takes the place of of civil rights Merit.
I recommend reading this summary for those who would like to read the history of Rutledge Henry Pearson, a real Civil Rights Hero and Trailblazer with a real history of fighting racism and segregation. Nothing made up and certainly nothing embellished.
The Struggle Continues. RLHSR.
AS WE CONTINUE TO COMMEMORATE a series of 50th Civil Rights Events Anniversaries starting in 2010 with Ax Handle Saturday(1960)…2013 The March on Washington(1963)…2014 the riots in St. Augustine(1964)…the 1964 Civil Rights Act…and the upcoming Selma March(1965) and the 1965 Voting Rights Act -and many others- remember these events were punctuated with horrific violence and senseless deaths. America was not warm or accepting of civil rights THEN just as America is not warm or accepting of Civil Rights NOW. I am amused as "after the fact" articles are written about different cities and their civil rights confrontations–St. Augustine and Montgomery and Jacksonville and Birmingham and Nashville to name a few and pivotal events in the Struggle. You would think there were thousands of persons demonstrating while holding hands singing "Kumbaya". WRONG! There were only a few. Many Whites and Blacks stood on the sidelines. We don't frown on those who did stand on the sidelines but we do excoriate those…especially Blacks…who stood on the sidelines "throwing rocks". Racists responded with ax handle and baseball bats and bullets and bombs directed to anyone standing for Human Dignity and Respect. Violence was the mindset how racists always responded to the Civil Rights Movement.
As we Commemorate and Remember, keep in mind Racism was the order of the day then as it still is today. That is What the American Institution of Racism is all about. Even though it is uncomfortable history, it is nonetheless American History…Black History…Civil Rights History.
Don't Commemorate and Forget…Commemorate and Remember! Remember many paid the ultimate price trying to help people register and vote and trying to help America live up to the words in the Declaration of Independence—"Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness". Those words, though written by many vile slave owning founding fathers and American Presidents, were intended for all American Citizens and not just property owning White Citizens. Remember the Preamble to the Constitution says "We, The People", and not We The White People. And Always Remember if you are Black, no matter how "GOOD" some things appear to be for you and your circumstance, as long as you are Identifiable by the hue of your skin, the Struggle Continues!!
Israel Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's makes a 6,000 mile campaign speech courtesy of John "The Stupid Wimp" Boehner. We need to really internalize that bringing a foreign leader to address Congress to challenge a U.S. President’s policies is unprecedented. IT HAS NEVER HAPPENED BEFORE IN THE 200 YEARS + OF THIS COUNTRY'S EXISTENCE. And that is exactly what Netanyahu did. Nothing more than a campaign speech for his constituents in Israel especially since he is running behind in the polls.
Racist Republicants through John Boehner disrespected themselves and America in the process. Did we need to invite the head of a Foreign Government to set our Foreign Policy? Of course not. Again Natanyahu said nothing different he could not have said AFTER the election. Netanyahu used John the Ass because he is in political trouble in Israel. So if the services of a Political Prostitute are free…as all of John Boehner's services are…then use them until you use them and him up. And in the process, disrespect President Obama. Racism at its degrading and disrespecting finest.
This disrespectful Lying Before-The-Fact speech by the erstwhile Jewish Speaker of the House of Representatives from Israel had ONE overriding element…DO NOT TRUST PRESIDENT OBAMA. Netanyahu played to the Republicant hatred of President Obama and the Race Card while inserting himself in the Foreign policy Affairs of this country. Racism by Netanyahu and Ongoing Racism by Republicant Racists. BTW…Netahyahu did not offer a damn thing. What was his alternative? He is not at the negotiation table. Netanyahu's claims in the speech were wrong. Plus there are other countries involved…Russia, China, India, Japan. Bottom line…ALL OF THIS WAS STAGED, and This STUNT was pulled in front of Congress. One person described his speech as the Republicant reply to the President's State of the Union.
If the President were White…and the United States embarked on sensitive Foreign Policy with a number of countries, would anyone extend an invitation to Netanyahu to do anything? Hell No! The hatred of President Obama and the American Institution of Racism moves right along.
The Struggle Continues. RLHSR.
Don’t let this Black History Month come and go as many have in past years and we not think about Black History again until next February.
• Teach a Young Person Why Dr. Carter G. Woodson saw the need to start Negro History Week, now Black History Month.
• Teach a Young Person about the Great Heritage and Legacy of Blacks who achieved in spite of.
• Teach a Young Person that as important as Booker T. Washington and George Washington Carver are to Black History and American History, there are many more Blacks who made salient contributions to the development of America.
• Teach a Young Person the Great Legacy of these names as starters who make up the United States Postal Service Black Heritage Series: Harriet Tubman, Martin Luther King, Benjamin Banneker, Whitney Moore Young, Jackie Robinson, Scott Joplin, Carter G. Woodson, Mary McLeod Bethune, Sojourner Truth, Jean Baptiste DuSable, James Weldon Johnson, A. Phillip Randolph, Ida B. Wells, Jan E. Matzeliger, W.E.B. Du Bois, Percy Lavon Julian, Dr. Allison Davis, Bessie Coleman, Ernest E. Just, Benjamin O. Davis, Sr., Madam C. J. Walker, Malcolm X (El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz), Patricia Roberts Harris, Roy Wilkins, Langston Hughes, Thurgood Marshall, Paul Robeson, Marian Anderson, Hattie McDaniel, Ella Fitzgerald, Charles Chesnutt, Anna Julia Cooper, John H. Johnson, Barbara Jordan, Althea Gibson, Shirley Chisholm, Robert Robinson Taylor. Of course there are many, many more.
• Teach a Young Person the Civil Rights Movement is very much a part of Black History.
• Teach a Young Person about the NAACP, SNCC, SCLC, CORE.
• Teach a Young person about some of the Civil Rights Martyrs starting with Harriett and Harry T. Moore, Medgar Evers, Jimmie Lee Jackson, Vernon Dahmer.
• Teach a Young Person how hypocritical those who wrote “Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness” in the Declaration of Independence are ---Presidents and America’s so-called Founding Fathers George Washington and Thomas Jefferson --- who each owned more than 200 slaves.
• Teach a Young Person Blacks made major major contributions to this country and America owes us nothing but the pay back of the money stolen from slaves during slavery.
My point is it is our responsibility to tell our story. “Unless WE Tell It…It Never Gets Told!”
The Struggle Continues. RLHSR.
1. A. Philip Randolph
2. Althea Gibson
3. Percy Lavon Julian
Percy Julian — born in Montgomery, Alabama — escaped the dangerous Jim Crow culture of the South and went on to become a chemist. Lauded for his work with human hormone synthesis, Julian set the stage for steroidal drug production (including cortisone and birth control pills).
4. Myrlie Evers-Williams
Born Myrlie Louise Beasley, Williams was wife to NAACP staffer Medgar Evers, who was murdered by a white supremacist in 1963. She later became a chairperson of the NAACP and then helped to restore the organization to its previous glory. In 2013, she delivered the invocation for President Barack Obama’s second inauguration.
5. Matthew Alexander Henson
Matthew Henson was the first African American Arctic explorer. Henson was a navigator and craftsman and acted as tradesman with the Inuit people. He was part of a party of explorers who are recognized as the first to reach the geographic North Pole, and in 1937, he was invited to become a member of the Explorers Club.
6. Fannie Lou Hamer
Fannie Lou Hamer was a key organizer of the Freedom Summer campaign — an event that attempted to register as many blacks as possible to vote in Mississippi (a state that historically excluded blacks from casting ballots). She is remembered as a fervent speaker who relied on her own story to reach the masses.
7. Lewis Latimer
Lewis Latimer was an inventor who is credited for greatly improving the filament in Thomas Edison’s lightbulb, helping it to last much longer than Edison’s original design. Additionally, Latimer was very involved in the design for the original telephone, working with Alexander Graham Bell to help draft a patent.
8. Edward Bouchet
Edward Bouchet (son of a former slave) was born in Connecticut. His family members were big participants in their town’s abolitionist movement, and Edward followed suit by becoming the first African American to graduate from Yale College. He dedicated his post-graduate life to educating students in physics.
9. Shirley Chisholm
Born in Brooklyn, New York, Shirley Chisholm started out as an educator specializing in early childhood development. From there, she went on to become not only the first African American to be elected to Congress, but also the first woman to run for president of the United States.
10. Robert Smalls
Robert Smalls was an ex-slave and naval hero who went on to become a congressional representative for North Carolina. In 1862, he freed himself and his crew from slavery by commandeering a Confederate ship and sailing it to freedom. His tenacity is considered to have been a chief influence in the administration’s decision to accept African Americans into the U.S. Army.
Great Americans who happen to be Black. The Struggle Continues. RLHSR.
DRESS IT UP ANY WAY YOU WANT…There is only ONE REASON for Intense Republicant Hate…Core Racism by Core White Republicant Racists. PERIOD!!!
The American Dream for many White American Males has always been …One day I can become President of the Untied States. Not only did President Obama shatter that dream but many of the dreamers were White Republicants already holding elective office. They felt they were a hop and a skip from the presidency and had all kinds of fantasies about being called President Whomever. For a Black male, whose people were less than 150 years out of slavery at his election, to ascend the lofty position of the President of the United States, Commander-in-Chief of the United States Military…AND…The Most Powerful Person in the World BEFORE THEM was really TOO MUCH for the White American Dreamers to stand. The unkindest cut of All. Bitter Pill. The Nightmare of All Nightmares.
These same Racist Dreamers have told Black folks over the years you are powerless and your votes do not mean a thing, and for decades tried every conceivable vile, evil, and racist means to keep Blacks from voting. Yet, these same descendants of slaves, fighting a system that did not want them involved, helped elect a president with the same skin color of a slave. Another killed White American Dream.
So Racists and Racist Republicants fight back at a President who has America's best interests at heart. They fight because they do not want history to record one of the greatest presidents ever was an intelligent, articulate Black man whose deeds and accomplishments did not compare to any other president in recent memory. They try every way and every day to sabotage this presidency. They have millionaires and billionaires spending and spending to defeat and slow down his programs. They buy the media and the Supreme Court and Congress and still President Obama rises to work for the people who enslaved his people. Which is why no matter what, the Struggle will always Continue until American makes good on the IOUs promised in the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence. Nothing more and certainly nothing less.
The Struggle Continues. RLHSR.