Picture of first sit-in August 13, 1960 and closed lunch counter. “It was never about a hot dog and a Coke®!” More »

Civil Rights Marker in downtown Jacksonville-Hemming Park/Plaza. More »

With Stetson Kennedy and Wayne Greenhaw. More »

Members of the 1960 Jacksonville Youth Council NAACP TODAY---with Marjorie Meeks Brown, Dr. Arnett E. Girardeau, Iona Godfrey King, Rometa Graham Porter, Isaac Carnes, Alton Yates. More »

With NAACP National Executive Secretary Roy Wilkins in 1960 when he spoke in Jacksonville at one of the NAACP Mass Meetings. More »

Receiving Bronze Medal as a Florida Book Awards Winner--with Wayne Wiegand. More »

With Dr. Michael Eric Dyson-Speaker at the 2009 Jacksonville Branch NAACP Freedom Fund Dinner. More »

Speaker-City of Jacksonville Dr. Martin Luther King Breakfast More »

With Dr. Charles Ogletree, the Harvard Law School Jesse Climenko Professor of Law, and Founding and Executive Director of the Charles Hamilton Houston Institute for Race and Justice...and the Speaker at the 2008 Jacksonville Branch NAACP Freedom Fund Dinner. Dr. Ogletree taught both Michelle Obama and President Obama at Harvard Law School. More »

Ruby Hurley and Ella Baker, two of 12 Civil Rights Icons immortalized in the 2009 USPS Stamp Issue-Civil Rights Pioneers. More »

Mrs. Ruby Hurley, Southeastern Regional Director NAACP and our 1960 NAACP Youth Council Surrogate Mother. More »

With Civil Rights Icon and Congressman John Lewis More »

50th Anniversary Commemoration of the 1960 Sit-ins and Ax Handle Saturday with members of the 1960 Jacksonville Youth Council NAACP. From left...Issac Carnes, Marjorie Meeks Brown, Mary Chisholm Underwood, Iona Godfrey King, and Ann Albertie Hurst (yep my wife). In the rear of the Pulpit area at Bethel Baptist Institutional Church...from left...Ms. Adora Nweze, President of the Florida State Conference of Branches NAACP; Rev. Dr. Randolph Bracy; Isaiah Rumlin, President of the Jacksonville Branch; and Bethel Senior Co-Pastor, Bishop Rudolph McKissick Sr. More »

Jacksonville Branch NAACP 2012 Freedom Fund Dinner More »

With Dr. Jelani Cobb at the 98th ASALH Annual Convention in Jacksonville October 2-6, 2013. More »

Dr. Johnnetta Cole, Speaker at the 2013 ASALH National Convention Banquet in Jacksonville, Florida. More »

Dr. Robert Hayling, Me, and Charlie Cobb at the 2014 Florida Heritage Book Festival for our presentation on the Civil Rights/Freedom Summer Movement. More »


Police are RACISTS too!


Philando Castile

I HAVE ALWAYS SAID IF YOU ARE A RACIST WHEN YOU JOIN THE POLICE FORCE, GIVING YOU A BADGE AND A GUN NOW MEANS YOU ARE A RACIST WITH LEGAL LIFE AND DEATH CONTROL OVER ME! You can shoot and KILL me with impunity knowing you will never get charged or serve time. Yet there are those who will hide the police behind the comments—"fear of their safety" or "his life was in danger." These are law enforcement professionals. Would you have me believe they cannot diffuse situations without taking a life? You never read about the police struggling with a White person and then shooting and killing that White person at point blank range OR as that White person runs away for whatever reason…the policeman stops…kneels on one knee …takes careful aim…and shoots the fleeing White person in the back and killing him OR arresting a White female for showing "attitude" resulting in her death from an as yet explained "suicide" while in jail OR shooting a White kid with a toy gun within 3 seconds of arriving on the scene. Yet you read those scenarios everyday when the police deals with someone Black. Question…When a Black person is involved, killing is the only solution? Your skin color is your ticket for death?

Whites cannot understand this. I will not even try to help them understand. But suffice it to say, WHITES NEVER have to worry about getting a phone call in the middle of the night that a loved one has been killed by the police for WHATEVER the reason. You will see countless efforts to defend and explain the police MURDERS in Louisiana and Minnesota and whenever and wherever POLICE KILLS a Black person. And invariably, the Black dead victim was ALWAYS AT FAULT. We refuse to believe and understand Racism at work when we know racism is at work. It is racism and the American Institution of Racism. We refuse to admit that police and law enforcement agencies REEKS of the Klan and other Racist organizations. We also refuse to admit police CAN BE Racist. Certainly Whites refuse to admit it while also refusing to admit that Racism even exists. Let's just say many Whites wear Racism Sun Glasses.

Blacks and Whites are prompted to say it is just THE CRIMINAL ELEMENT IN THIS COUNTRY. The Irony is the American Institution of Racism just about guarantees that 1 in 6 Black men will have a record or at least have an arrest during their lifetime. THE PRESS AND THE POLICE reinforce this negative image with a mug shot of several years ago and the press "suggests" this Black man was killed and "IT WAS HIS FAULT" because of his past or present criminal activity. "The Police felt threatened and feared for his safety."

THE SCRIPT CONTINUES…When the community refuses to buy that and shows disgust and demonstrates or even implies violence because of ANOTHER Black person killed at the hands of the police, White Police Chiefs and White Sheriffs and White elected officials do what they have always done since time immemorial. They trot out a Black preacher(s) and/or Black elected officials who then mouth these mealy-mouthed scripted words: "Let's just pray and be cool and let the process run its course." And this rejoinder…"I believe in the system." even when the preachers know THE SYSTEM DOES NOT WORK!

All of this revolves around that cursed "four letter word" called RACISM. You can think it is overworked or misused or not even applicable in Police on Black Murders…but understand you are not acknowledging the very obvious. Racism is Real and it permeates out every day existence. You fight Racism by admitting it exists…You call it out…and you use every tool at your disposal to fight it every day. You vote in huge numbers…you demonstrate…You do those things which makes a city uncomfortable and even makes you uncomfortable…You bring White elected officials before your organizations to explain issues and tell you where they stand on issues critical to your community …you vote out those whom you know are racist…You also call out the House Niggers among YOU who will sell you out for a few dollars and a Bar-Be-Cue Sandwich…AND YOU BOYCOTT AND WITHHOLD YOUR MONEY FOR LONG PERIODS OF TIME. Then some …not all… but some White Folks will get the message. Remember fighting Racism requires US to sacrifice. That is SACRIFICE in Capital letters.

The Struggle Continues. RLHSR.

Yep…It’s Official. RACIST AMERICA!!!

An Independence Day float in Sheridan, IND. The cart's roof displayed signs in support of presumptive Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump. On the front was the head of a stuffed animal with a sign reading "African Lion." On the back, a doll with an Obama mask was propped in a toilet with a sign reading "Lying African." Just a reinforcement of the Appropriate Tag …Racist America.

WE need to cut the bull sh*t and truthfully deal with the fact the scab is really off America’s Festering Sore called RACISM. It has been really for some time but many put varying tolerance and brotherhood/sisterhood “ointments” on the “Racism Sore” and thought it was healing. In actuality it just stayed below the surface and off the healing radar screen. But No Longer. White Racist Christian Evangelicals have done the most to really show how Racist America is. Hiding behind Christianity and the Christian Cross, we have seen: Disrespect for a Black President in ways that stagger the imagination, restriction of voting rights which really means restriction of Black voting rights, disrespect of Black men women and children, attacks on public education, attacks on every ethnic group or others, rewriting American history to remove references to racism and slavery, and “justified racist killings” of Blacks by the police. All part and parcel of what is now Racism as OVERT as OVERT can be. Once again, we see in Louisiana that White Police can continue to kill Black men with impunity as happened recently with Alton Sterling. A Heinous Murder. I look for a racist “justifiable homicide” verdict …WHAT ELSE!…whenever the circumstances are presented. Since Slavery, America camouflaged its Core Racist Attitudes and Racism under a cloak of Dishonest and Revisionist History, and Immorality and White Christianity. It was Simply Runaway Unimpeded Racism.

White folks continue to say Blue Lives Matter or All Lives Matter. They will not say Black Lives Matter because for many Whites, Black Lives DO NOT matter. And that is why a Racist like Donald Trump resonates with America. Donald Trump’s racist message says KEEP THE NIGGER IS HIS PLACE LIKE IT USED TO BE. You can add an extension to that which should read…Even If It Means Killing a NIGGER. That is what Donald Trump is selling and White America is buying is Donald Trump’s message in MASSIVE quantities. I was listening to Joe Madison this morning and a caller said… “Donald Trump says SOME stupid things but his heart is in the right place.” How stupid is that? White folks support anything that is Racist which does not put THEM in a defensive posture. Let’s look at it this way, suppose Black police were killing Whites at the same rate, the same way, and the same reasons White Police are killing Blacks. Do you really think there would NOT be an outcry of mythic proportions by the White community? White folks would not stand for White murders at the hands of Black police. You would probably see the end of Black police in this country. Yet Black killings by the White police are justified with a “ho hum” and an “Oh Well.”

By dehumanizing Black victims —by the media—and bringing up everything negative they did from childhood until their death, the design is to make it appear the victims, even in death, are the scum of the earth. When all else fails there is always this convenient caveat … “Well it would not have happened if he/she had not been doing the wrong thing.” Of course, the complicit press stands by ready and willing to help this Rebranding Of Racist America. In the minds of many in White America, The Police protects THEM from the Black criminal element, and if some Blacks are killed in the process, So Be It! That’s the price of public safety. And Black folks and White folks, stop quoting Dr. Martin Luther King’s "I look to a day when people will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character." You have nothing else to say so you quote Dr. King knowing you do not mean it. Own up to the fact America YOU are a Racist Country. YOU reinforce that truism every day. Stop talking about the “Land of the Free” and the “Home of the Brave.” Change “Free” and “Brave” to “Racist” and you give a much clearer picture.

The Struggle Continues. RLHSR.

White Entertainment Awards? Really?

Part of another Facebook friend’s conversation where his Facebook friend…not my Facebook friend…went on about Jesse Williams' rousing (my word) speech during the Black Entertainment Awards (BET)…and his sounding racist (her word) …and other “things.” I “politely” waded in…
OBVIOUS WHITE PERSON: Do we have White Entertainment Awards (after making a few other comments about the Black Entertainment Awards)?
ME: YES..You already have White Entertainment Awards. They are called the Oscars…The Emmys …The Tonys…and The Grammys. First of all Black Entertainment Awards and the Black Entertainment Network came into existence because the Oscars and the Emmys and the Tonys and The Grammys historically ignored Black actors and musicians and their music and ignored Blacks on the traditional and predominantly White Networks…which might I add they still do. Whites always complain about Blacks saying Racism because many Whites are so used to White Privilege and White Supremacy that they will not acknowledge Racism EXISTS which they created out of Slavery. Racism is real and it manifests itself every day. The reason Donald Trump has resonated is because Donald Trump is a Racist and appeals to the White racist element in America. Those who profess Trump is not a Racist either have their heads in the sand or are racist themselves and refuse to admit it. Racism is not that complex. Whites have imposed their will culturally, politically and socially on Blacks based on the color of their skin because they can. That is the definition of Racism. It is Quite simple. What is not simple is Whites will not admit their Racism. But it is there admit it or not. And White American Racism has been here for some time.

The Struggle Continues. RLHSR.


A number of persons today talk about a Revolution and being a part of a Revolution. Some even equate THEIR definition of a Revolution to the Civil Rights Movement. I have NO IDEA how they define a Revolution but understand this, the Civil Rights Movement and fighting Racism was and is about challenges and sacrifice. The word is SACRIFICE. There is no Movement without Sacrifice. There is no Progress without Sacrifice. Confronting the system… as you define Revolution…or as a part of a defined Civil Rights Movement STILL requires Sacrifice. Question…Are you ready and prepared to make a Sacrifice and everything it entails? If you are not, stay on the sidelines and talk. Let the adults continue their fight.

The Struggle Continues. RLHSR.

The American Institution of Racism…Revisited Over and Over and Over Again!


Racism is a system of oppression, one that creates a society of first- and second-class citizens by denying rights and access to resources to non-white people. Racism is also a system that seeks to degrade and denigrate. Slavery created racial segregation and institutionalized racism. Most dictionaries define “racism” as racial hatred based on the color of one’s skin. As Dick Gregory said, “White is not a color; it’s an attitude.” Some add that racism is racial prejudice plus the institutional and systemic power to dominate, exclude, discriminate against, or abuse targeted groups of people based on a designation of race. As historian Eric Williams writes in his book Capitalism and Slavery, “Slavery was not born of racism; rather, racism was the consequence of slavery.” Racism is an insidious cultural disease. So this Poll says Trump supporters …aka Racists…view Blacks as Violent. ..Lazy…and Unintelligent. Let's "unwrap" those three terms:
LAZY BLACKS…Yet Blacks were never lazy when they were enslaved and working to put untold billions of dollars in the pockets of the ancestors of these same racists. The trade in enslaved persons, from the middle of the fifteenth century to the end of the nineteenth, was responsible for the kidnapping of between twelve and fifteen million people, forcibly removed from Africa to the Western Hemisphere.In the year 1840, four million of these same "lazy Blacks" were worth more than all the banks/financial institutions, transportation industries, and insurance businesses in America. These same LAZY BLACKS created American Capitalism and Wall Street.

VIOLENT BLACKS…White America, not Black America created/founded the Ku Klux Klan and other cowardly night rider groups to exact violence on Blacks. WE did not create violence in this land we were brought to after being kidnapped from Africa. Christian Whites created Violence and certainly extended it to keep Blacks "in their place." During slavery they were called Slave Patrols. Now they are called The Police.

UNINTELLIGENT BLACKS…White textbook authors and White historians have gone out of their way to write an incomplete and dishonest American history. One that excludes instead of including the many salient contributions by Blacks. The reasons are obvious. If you cannot read about the contributions by your ancestors, then the conclusion is your ancestors never contributed anything. You purposefully excludeD the names and the contributions of Great Blacks such as Benjamin Banneker, Daniel Hale Williams, Charles Drew, Matt Henson, Garret Morgan, Granville Woods, Elijah McCoy Percy Julian, James Weldon Johnson, A. Philip Randolph, Alexander Dumas, Alexander Pushkin —LONG LONG LIST— because you do not want anyone to know and certainly not record that Blacks were just as significant in the development of this country as White Americans and White Europeans. You quite simply did not want anyone, including us, to read about us.

White folks have inherited the wealth and privilege derived from free Black labor, White Privilege, and White Supremacy which they willingly enjoy today. Black folks inherited nothing and received nothing when freed, and they continue to face the effects of this rigged game, which continues into the present day, even as they have struggled, and resisted this system, and attempted to build for themselves. Every stumbling block thrown in the way of Blacks has been overcome and we will continue to overcome YOUR White Racist Stumbling Blocks. That is what the American Institution of Racism is about. Call US Violent, Lazy, and Unintelligent if you will White America…But YOU Know Better…YOU know the Real Truth.

The Struggle Continues. RLHSR.

Donald Trump is a Racist…and if you support him, So Are YOU!

It is called the “if you can’t definitively prove racism, it isn’t so” phenomenon. It is a common strategy of asking any person of color who identifies a racist practice or pattern to ‘prove’ that racism is indeed the underlying factor or that it even exists. The implication is if one cannot produce indisputable evidence of clear, blatant, and intentional prejudice, then racism must be banned as a possibility. But this is both asinine as an intellectual claim and precarious as a policy standard. In a nation with the racial history of the United States, it is both ludicrous AND preposterous to think that non-racism would be the presumption and that racism must be proven FIRST and proven beyond a reasonable doubt.
American History and White historians do not honestly record Slavery, Lynchings, Race Riots, Jim Crow Laws, and the Nadir of Race Relations as a part of American History. That is racist in itself but it also shows how much Christian America will not admit its Racism and the unconscionable racist history of America. Donald Trump has feasted on America's Racist history. He adamantly maintains White Privilege and White Supremacy as weapons. Many Whites conspicuously ignore these proven facts of vile and virulent racism as if they never existed. They then stand and shout from the roof tops that Donald Trump is not a racist and don’t dare call them a racist because they support Donald Trump. Blacks who support Trump carry a different circumstance, but keep this in mind…We still have slaves. They simply cost more.
Donald Trump is a candidate for the President of the United States. Donald Trump is also a Racist candidate for the President of the United States. The campaign of a racist like Donald Trump simply means you do not have to wear a robe as you seek to intimidate and harass and murder in the middle of the night to be identifiably racist. There are several differences between Trump and card carrying Ku Klux Klan members and other racists but the racist thread is the same…he wears a suit instead of a robe…he wears a race-coded slogan cap instead of a tattooed swastika…he flies in a plane instead of riding a horse…he says "you/your people" and "my African American" instead of Nigger…and he will still spew inflammatory racial comments/epithets and incite his racist supporters in a heartbeat. When you support Donald Trump, then YOU WHITE AMERICA also support his racist comments and his racism and YOU WHITE AMERICA, whether you want to admit it or not, are also admitting your racism. You cannot lie, distract and spin your support of racism no matter how hard you try.
The Struggle Continues. RLHSR.

Saying the Right Things Because It Was The Right Thing To Do.

Jesse Williams accepts the Humanitarian Award onstage during the 2016 BET Awards at the Microsoft Theater June 26, 2016, in Los Angeles.
THE REASON JESSE WILLIAMS COMMENTS RESONATED SO MUCH is not because he said anything new. It is because HE Said words that needed to be said about RACISM and America's Core Racist Attitudes PUBLICLY AND ON NATIONWIDE TV. Black performers/celebrities traditionally and historically DO NOT talk about Racism and say the words that need to be said when they need to be said. They will not speak the truth and let the chips fall where they may. Think what would happen if Blacks who were in position to make things happen would say the things that needed to be said instead of saying—as Michael Jordan did when asked why he did not speak out about issues Democrats embraced and which helped Black people—Michael's Infamous Response…"Republicans buy shoes too." Unfortunately with all of his basketball greatness, I will remember those words by Michael so much more than his basketball accomplishments, but then again that's just me.

Which is the problem with many Black millionaire celebrities and Black millionaire athletes. They really think by kissing Ass and avoiding the issues that impact people who look like them, will somehow make them more acceptable to White folks. It will not. Whites might "like" you for kissing their behinds. They will probably enjoy it…BUT…they also will not trust you. If you will not respect and support your own people why would you think they would think you will ultimately support them? They certainly will not respect you for your obvious lack of integrity, and most certainly they will not want to keep you around. YOU smell literally and figuratively to THEM. Imagine then, how you look and smell to US…some of US anyway. Keep your mouth closed Michael Jordan and the many many Michael Jordans who can make a difference. Keep fooling yourself that somehow Whites in this country do not notice the color of your skin. Your legacy is set and it is not what you think it is.

The Struggle Continues. RLHSR.

The Mass Murders America Has Conveniently Forgotten.


American History is full of Mass Murders.

Just file this away when we talk about mass murders in this country. It is amazing how this country and the media always forget THESE murders when the ONLY reason was the color of the victim's skin. Then again it is not amazing. America likes to fool itself into believing Racism and Racist Murders do not and did not exist.

The Struggle Continues. RLHSR.

Another Clueless Republican.


Disgrace to Woolworth? Give me a Break.

WHEN YOU SEE AND HEAR THE IGNORANCE OF THE REPUBLICANTS ON THE DEMOCRAT'S "HOUSE SIT-IN", you can understand—a little bit anyway–how racists reacted to lunch counter sit-ins back in the day. This clown cannot even get his facts straight and this is certainly NO DISGRACE to Woolworth who was very culpable in what happened in their stores. Even the heckling by Republicants reminds me of the Whites standing behind us at the closed Woolworth lunch counter in Jacksonville showering us with the usual choice racist epithets…Jungle Bunny…Nigger…and NAACP-Niggers Ain't Acting Like Colored People. Quite frankly most of the pundits cannot respond to what is happening on the House floor because they never had to use civil disobedience as a means to an end.

The fact that it was suggested by Rep John Lewis really makes some Republicant racists masquerading as Republicant Congressmen/Congresswomen that much angrier. The issues are different, BUT John Lewis is a veteran of the Civil Rights Movement and Whites in Congress on the Republicant side do not want to revisit it. John Lewis has taken them there and they cannot stand it. Many are talking about the decorum of the House. When you are wrong…you are wrong. Republicants have been wrong for so long that many cannot wrap their arms around these words from the Declaration of Independence.. —written by Thomas Jefferson, one of their favorite slave owning Presidential heroes:
"…That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it"

Like it or not and irrespective of the ending of this demonstration, and like John Lewis or not, a statement has been made on the floor of the United States House of Representatives. We used sit-ins at White lunch counters in our quest for human dignity and respect back in the day to fight Segregation and Racism and White Privilege and White Supremacy. Different fight today but the goal is still the same…Human Dignity and Respect.

The Struggle Continues. RLHSR.


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I CANNOT HELP BUT THINK HOW MUCH FURTHER ALONG WE WOULD BE IN THE FIGHT AGAINST RACISM AND CORE RACIST ATTITUDES in America if America and the world would have reacted in horror and disgust and had the same level of concern about the Blacks killed in their church by a Racist Murderer as they have for the persons killed in a club. Not based on the location of the murders but based on the COLOR OF THEIR SKIN. And for those who say there he goes again, YOU ARE DAMN RIGHT. Even when there is a horrific crime like the murders in the Black AME church in Charleston, somehow Black murders even when you know the color of their skin was the reason for their death do not carry the same importance. And for those who say, It is not about Race…When Blacks are killed like Christian Worshipers were killed South Carolina…IT IS ALWAYS ABOUT RACE. Putting your head in a hole in the sand does not change the facts or make Racism go away.
While law enforcement experts and psychologists and political pundits and ne'er-do-wells ponder and discuss ad nauseum the motivation of Omar Mateen, you do not have to ask what Dylan Roof was thinking when he sat in a church for an hour and planned his racist murders while observing the Blacks he would later execute because of the color of their skin. Before he started shooting, Dylan Roof stood in Emanuel AME Church and said, “You rape our women, and you’re taking over our country.” In the many articles written about this "troubled young man"–certainly not my words–"Roof exhibited signs of obsessive–compulsive disorder as he grew up." He certainly was not troubled enough to go to racist web sites …then buy a gun…then premeditate his actions. Once again the press cannot bring itself to call a Racist Murderer a Racist Murderer even when he admits he is a Racist Murderer.
We do not know why Mateen killed 50 innocents in Orlando, but WE know WHY Roof killed 9 innocents in Charleston South Carolina. I pray for the Nine souls in Charleston and the Fifty Souls in Orlando, but I did not, I do not, and I will NOT PRAY NOR FORGIVE Omar Mateen and certainly not Dylan Roof.
The Struggle Continues. RLHSR.